Bogotá is the capital of the Republic of Colombia, and houses the National Legislature, the Supreme Court of Justice, and the center of the executive administration as well as the residence of the President of the Republic. The Principal Mayor and District Council are responsible for city administration and are both elected by popular vote.
The city is divided into 20 localities: Usaquen, Chapinero, Santa Fe, San Cristobal, Usme, Tunjuelito, Bosa, Kennedy, Fontibón, Engativá, Go up, United Neighborhoods, Teusaquillo, The Martyrs, Antonio nariño, Aranda Bridge, La Candelaria, Rafael Uribe Uribe, Bolivar City, Sumapáz.
Each of the 20 localities is governed by an administrative board elected by popular vote, made up of no less than seven members, as determined by the District Council. The Principal Mayor designates local mayors from a trio proposed by the respective administrative board.
- Arias, Santa, and Mariselle Meléndez. Mapping Colonial Spanish America: Places and Commonplaces of Identity, Culture and Experience. Bucknell University Press, 2002. ISBN 0838755097
- Henderson, Alexander C., Helen Delpar, Maurice P. Brungardt, and Richard Weldon. A Reference Guide to Latin American History. Routledge, 2000. ISBN 978-1563247446
- Leech, Gary. Beyond Bogota: Diary of a Drug War Journalist in Colombia. Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 2008. ISBN 978-0807061459
- Sowell, David. The Early Colombian Labor Movement: Artisans and Politics in Bogota, 1832-1919. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 1992. ISBN 978-0877229650
Bogotá is Colombia’s largest economic center and the headquarters of major commercial banks, and to the Bank of the Republic, Colombia’s central bank as well as Colombia’s main stock market (established 1928). Because of its status as site of the country’s capital, it is home to a number of government agencies, which represent a major component of the city’s economy. Bogotá houses the military headquarters and is the center of Colombia’s telecommunications network. Public services include energy, sewer and telephones. Energy and sewer bills are stratified based on the location of the residence. Thus, the wealthier sections of society help subsidize the energy bills of the poorer sections of society.
Most companies in Colombia have their headquarters in Bogotá, and it is home to many foreign companies doing business in Colombia and neighboring countries. Bogotá is a major center for the import and export of goods for Colombia and the Andean Community in Latin America and is the home of Colombia’s tire, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries, but its chief activities are commercial. It is the hub of air travel in the nation and the home of South America’s first commercial airline Avianca (National Airways of Colombia). Bogotá also receives money from exports such as flowers and emeralds. In downtown Bogotá, millions of dollars in domestically produced rough and cut emeralds are bought and sold daily.
In less than 50 years, Bogotá went from being a small city with less than 500,000 inhabitants to a metropolis of more than 7 million. Between the mid-1980s to the early 1990s, as the population grew, violence and crime increased excessively, resulting in Bogotá being considered one of the most dangerous cities in the world in the mid 1990s. At one point it had a homicide rate of 80 per 100,000 people. Since then however, Bogotá has gone to great lengths to change its crime rate and its image. The change was the result of a participatory and integrated security policy that was first adopted in 1995. Because of its success, this security policy has continued to be implemented ever since. In 2005, Bogotá’s murder rate had declined to 23 persons per 100,000 inhabitants, a 71 percent drop from 10 years before. Interestingly, by the way of comparison, the city today has a lower murder rate than Washington, D.C., Caracas, Sao Paulo, Mexico City, Panama City, and Rio de Janeiro.
While Bogotá was successfully reducing homicides, other Colombian cities were experiencing substantial increases in the homicide rate, due to the armed conflict and drug trafficking in the late 1990s. Bogotá also reduced the number of fatal traffic accidents from 25 per 100,000 inhabitants in 1995 to 8.7 in 2003. The city reduced other crimes by 35 percent between 1998 and 2004.
In a travel warning dated June 4, 2007, the US State Department stated
Any journey also leaves gastronomic memories of new dishes. Colombian cuisine is no exception. Food is delicious in Bogota, like in simple cafes, and in expensive restaurants. Here, the freshness of the products and the culinary tradition always remain at a high level.. Ceviche is the main national dish, which came here from Peruvian cuisine yet 2000 years ago. It consists of fish and seafood and is in demand like local, and tourists. Various rich soups and broths are also popular in the city.. Ajiaco worth trying (local soup), uncle (low alcohol drink), coca leaf tea. The gastronomic places of Bogotá will be useful for tourists to plan their itinerary.
Andres in Bogota
- Steakhouse and salsa bar "Andres", besides good steaks, also offers an atmosphere - a crazy surreal interior will not leave anyone indifferent. There are always many visitors here, smells delicious and rumba sounds until morning: you can dance right between the tables, which is what almost all guests do with great pleasure.
- La Mar Cebicheria restaurant - a pretentious place, where you can taste the most tender grilled octopus. This delicacy will cost a lot, near 50 dollars, but it's worth it.
- Casa San Isidro restaurant - expensive place with Peruvian cuisine, where meat is cooked beautifully.
- The False Door., Cafe Casa Galeria., Cafe Mundano, Cafe Camino House - popular among tourists budget cafes with local cuisine and flavor.
If you have time and money, then you need to visit Bogota at least, to change the cultural picture of the world habitual for our worldview. Colombia will not be clear to everyone, even after visiting it, but it does not mean, that you shouldn't go there.
Конкистадор Хименес де Кесада — основатель Боготы
6 April 1536 the governor and adelantado of the province of Santa Marta Pedro Hernanes de Lugo sent his deputy, conquistador Jimenez de Quesada, with a detachment in 500 man, partly on 5 brigas upstream of the Magdalena River, частично — сушей вдоль реки; Jimenez de Quesada set out on the trade route, where salt was transported by the Indians, medium of exchange, from the Caribbean coast inland, reached the fertile Cundinamarca plateau after nine months. Two brigs were lost in the campaign, один — с людьми. The valley itself, where was Bogotá, were the first to find those sent on reconnaissance from 25 people captains Antonio de Lebrija and Juan de Cespedes. By that time, due to clashes with Indian tribes and diseases, the detachment remained 170 man, however, it was not difficult for them to conquer the Chibcha tribe inhabiting the area: mistaking the Spaniards for gods, Indians surrendered without much resistance. The name of the city and its Indian buildings in Spanish documents is first mentioned in the report of the royal officials Juan de San Martin and Antonio de Lebrija, who took personal part in the campaign of Jimenez de Quesada (July ):
Bogota was founded by the Spanish colonialists in 1538 year in the area, which was the center of the ancient civilization of the Chibcha Indians.
Богота расположилась на месте индейской крепости Баката и стала столицей Новой Гранады — такое название Кесада дал завоёванной территории.
When the city was founded, he was given the name Santa Fe de Bogota. Санта-Фе — это католический праздник Преображения, 6 August, the city was founded on this day. Over time, only the ending of the name remained.
Since Bogotá was the capital of the Spanish captaincy general, а с — вице-королевства Новая Гранада.
Defender of the city in 1573 year Archbishop of Bogotá Luis Zapata de Cardenas declared Saint Isabella, because the head (as a sacred relic) Isabella the Hungarian queen, donated in Madrid by Queen Anne of Austria (last wife of Philip II), he carried with him, but in 1573 year placed it in a silver box in the main church of the city, and the day of veneration for this saint was set for 19 November.
Napoleonic Wars in Europe sparked an upsurge in the national liberation struggle in Latin America. After Napoleon invaded Spain and instead of the deposed King Ferdinand VII elevated his brother Joseph Bonaparte to the throne, Creoles of Bogota pledged allegiance to Ferdinand VII, a 20 July, the Creole elite proclaimed self-government of New Granada until the restoration of the power of the rightful king. Power in the country passed into the hands of the Supreme Junta. In honor of these events 20 July Colombia celebrates Independence Day. Following Bogota, other cities declared independence.
Uprising "Bogotaso" in 1948 year
Returning to power in , Ferdinand made an attempt to restore the former absolute control of New Granada, what caused a new upsurge of the liberation movement. Only thanks to the introduction into the colony of a Spanish army of many thousands was it possible to restore and re-establish Spanish rule.
Bogota was liberated from the Spaniards by the army of Simon Bolivar only in 1819 year. At the same time, independence was proclaimed, and Bogotá became the capital of the Federal Republic of Colombia, or Greater Colombia; in 1831 year, after the secession of Venezuela and Ecuador, — снова столицей Новой Гранады, с — Соединённых Штатов Колумбии, а с — Колумбии.
At the end of the 19th century, Bogotá became the center of the country's revolutionary movement. During the Ninth Inter-American Conference, held in the capital in spring 1948 of the year, there was absolutely murder of progressive Colombian leader Jorge Gaitan. His ideas for ways to transform Colombian society were popular among the poorest segments of the population., therefore, Gaitan's assassination led to riots in the capital.
An armed uprising begins in Bogota, anti-conservative, which spread to other parts of the country. The riots were suppressed by troops with the support of tank units. As a result of battles, unfolding on the streets of Bogota, died about 2000 man. The central part of the capital was destroyed. Many buildings were burned. It took many years to restore the city to its original appearance. In the second half of the 20th century, Bogotá was the center of numerous internal political conflicts..
All links retrieved June 14, 2016.
- Harvard University Gazette, Academic turns city into a social experiment Text on Antanas Mockus’ many strategies to change Bogotá
- Lonely Planet, Introducing Bogotá
- Bogota Colombia South America
- Google Earth Bogotá Map
Capitals of South America
Assumption, Paraguay ·
Bogota, Colombia ·
Brasilia, Brazil ·
Buenos Aires, Argentina ·
Caracas, Venezuela ·
Cayenne, French Guiana ·
Georgetown, Guyana ·
Grytviken, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands ·
Peace, Bolivia ·
Lima, Peru ·
Montevideo, Uruguay ·
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History of “Bogota, Colombia”
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Colombians' relationship with sports is well described by the word "madness". In Europe we consider, what more passionate people, than the British, no, we know about their football hooligans, and any Russian football fan, usually, very familiar with the English league. In case of emergency, outside Europe for the football world there is Brazil with Argentina. Local football fanaticism pushed me away from it, and although I attend football matches in stadiums, a "Santa Fe", which I am rooting for, became the first Colombian team last year, who took the South American Cup, there is a very clear inflection point with passion for football. For Colombian commentators, there are no team mistakes at all, here on TV they talk for hours, how such and such a judge screwed up and how someone "was just unlucky"
In 1994, a former defender of the national team was killed in Colombia for, что во время игры против США имел неосторожность забить в свои ворота.
However, the most revealing story happened last summer., during Copa America. When Colombia played against Venezuela, I went with my Venezuelan friends to watch the match in the Bogota park in the north of the city. There was a huge screen installed, and half of Bogota and we are on the grass, ten people, supported Venezuela. We did it very loudly, they poked us in the back and yelled with loudspeakers in our ears, as a result, after the first goal against Colombia, our friend said, that "we won't leave here alive". When Venezuela won, local TV company interviewed us, and my friend, when we jumped loudly and rejoiced in victory, whistled the phone. That's about all, что вам нужно знать о футбольных фанатах здесь.
Cost of living and prices for goods in Bogota
|Dinner||Inexpensive restaurant||1 people.||3.4 USD|
|Dinner||Middle class restaurant||2 people.||20.3 USD|
|Dinner||McMeal at McDonald's||1 PC.||5.1 USD|
|The drinks||Local beer||0.5 liters||1.0 USD|
|The drinks||Imported beer||0.33 liters||2.0 USD|
|The drinks||Coke/Pepsi||0.33 liters||0.7 USD|
|The drinks||Water||0.33 liters||0.7 USD|
|The drinks||Cappuccino||Portion||1.3 USD|
|Products||Water||1.5 liters||1.1 USD|
|Products||White fresh bread||500 r.||0.9 USD|
|Products||Eggs||12 PC.||1.5 USD|
|Products||Milk||1 liter||0.9 USD|
|Products||Onion||1 Kg.||0.8 USD|
|Products||Cabbage||1 head||0.6 USD|
|Products||White rice||1 Kg.||1.2 USD|
|Products||Potato||1 Kg.||1.0 USD|
|Products||Tomatoes||1 Kg.||1.0 USD|
|Products||Local cheese||1 Kg.||3.8 USD|
|Meat||Chicken fillet||1 Kg.||4.4 USD|
|Fruits||Apples||1 Kg.||1.7 USD|
|Fruits||Bananas||1 Kg.||0.9 USD|
|Fruits||Oranges||1 Kg.||1.0 USD|
|Alcohol||Middle class wine||1 bottle||10.1 USD|
|Alcohol||Local beer||0.5 liters||0.9 USD|
|Alcohol||Imported beer||0.33 liters||2.1 USD|
|Cigarettes||Marlboro||1 pack||1.4 USD|
|Public transport||One way trip||1 ticket||0.7 USD|
|Public transport||Transport||Travel card||27.0 USD|
|Taxi||Initial rate||Landing||1.4 USD|
|Taxi||Trip||1 km.||1.4 USD|
|Taxi||Expectation||1 time||5.1 USD|
|Fuel||Gasoline||1 liter||0.7 USD|
|Car, purchase||Volkswagen Golf 1.4 90 KW Trendline||1 PC.||15,195.6 USD|
|Sports||A fitness center, season ticket||1 month||44.8 USD|
|Sports||Tennis court, rent||1 time||11.2 USD|
|Relaxation||Cinema, international film||1 a place||4.1 USD|
|clothing||Jeans, Levis 501||1 couple||57.6 USD|
|clothing||Summer dress in Zara, H&M||1 PC.||46.5 USD|
|Footwear||Nike Running Shoes||1 couple||85.1 USD|
|Footwear||Leather office shoes||1 couple||72.5 USD|
|Rental of property||Apartment in the city center||1-room||405.1 USD|
|Rental of property||The apartment is not in the center||1-room||316.7 USD|
|Rental of property||Apartment in the city center||3-room||689.1 USD|
|Rental of property||The apartment is not in the center||3-room||575.5 USD|
|Utilities||Electricity, heating… 85 sq. meters||1 month||78.1 USD|
|Communication||mobile connection||1 minute||0.1 USD|
|Communication||Unlimited Internet||1 month||26.5 USD|
|Buying a home||Apartment in the city center||1 sq. meter||1,826.5 USD|
|Buying a home||The apartment is not in the center||1 sq. meter||1,428.9 USD|
|Salary||Average salary after taxes||1 month||391.1 USD|
|Epoque||Interest rate||1 year||13.54%|
Prices in Bogota
Colombia is a relatively inexpensive tourist country. Prices in Bogota are also low:
- cheap city transport - from 70 cents;
- reasonable prices for souvenirs;
- food prices are quite adequate: here are relatively cheap vegetables and fruits, you can wholeheartedly enjoy exotic, walking through the local street markets, but the meat is expensive;
- dinner in a budget restaurant will cost approximately 10 dollars per person: almost every cafe has budget breakfasts and lunches 3-5 dollars.
Entertainment here is also affordable for everyone: the ticket to the museum costs 3 dollar, at a concert 5-10 dollars, excursions - from 10 to 15 dollars. It is worth taking a taxi in the city 3 dollar.
Colombia is a Catholic country, where love for one's neighbor in all its forms is elevated to a cult. This is reflected in the incredible number of husbands cheating on wives and wives to husbands, machismo and pregnancies at thirteen. Now the situation is declining, thirties appear, receiving a second higher education and having no children, the church gradually decreases its influence on the masses, but, it seems to me, the church also explains the lack of a cult of friendship, as in Russia. It is not accepted to be friends here, like we have, help friends, like we have, because for this there is a family and a mother, and with all your cousins you are closer, than you'll ever be with a stranger.
I think, to tell, that Colombians don't know how to be friends, will be too disrespectful to an entire nation, but in reality I really avoid friendship with local girls. For the most part, they are constantly competing with each other., beat off each other's partners, which they don't need, sort things out very loudly and live up to ninety years, because they can afford to cry on each other's shoulder, if something went wrong.
Since my favorite language is English, in six months I have formed a stable circle of friends from expats, as well as fearless Russians, direct embodiment of all existing stereotypes about us. My friendship with Colombians does not work out due to the language barrier, since I don't really like Spanish, but most of all due to their speech etiquette, which is directly opposite to my business habit. Colombians are terribly polite people, using a huge number of speech structures, aimed at making you seem cute, with no aggression. It's okay to be late for meetings here., because on the way you are obliged to hug all your acquaintances and inquire about their well-being, as well as the affairs of their families.
Physical and geographical characteristics
Площадь города — 1775 km². Bogota is located in a basin on the western slope of the Eastern Cordillera, на высоте 2610 м над уровнем моря. The city was built on the banks of the Rio San Francisco, today the river flows through pipes and it is impossible to see it. Although the capital of Colombia is located almost at the equator, because of the high altitude it is not hot there. The average temperature of the warmest month is +14 ° C, and the coldest about +13 ° C, that is, all months are practically the same. This roughly corresponds to the second half of May in Moscow. During the daytime, the air temperature is 19 ... 22 ° C, ночью — 7…11 °C. Due to its geographic location, the city is prone to earthquakes.
Sometimes frosts are possible in Bogota, а реже — снегопады. For example, In November 2007 years in Bogota it snowed. Frosts are possible all year round, but their frequency is higher in winter.
The capital of Colombia is located in the cold zone, characterized by the transition from mountain forests to treeless paramo (alpine meadows). There are thorny bushes on the banks of the river, low semi-deciduous forest, turf cereals. Monkeys live in the vicinity of the city, cougars, jaguars, bakeries, tapirs, battleships, porcupines, sloths, opossums, many types of snakes and lizards. Crocodiles and turtles live in rivers.
|Climate of Bogota|
|Абсолютный максимум, °C||25||25,8||25||25||25,4||25||23,4||23,6||23,3||24,4||24||25,6||25,8|
|Average maximum, °C||19,8||19,6||19,6||19,3||19,2||18,8||18,3||18,6||19||19,1||19,2||19,5||19,2|
|average temperature, °C||13||13,5||13,7||13,8||14||13,7||13,3||13,4||13,3||13,4||13,3||13,2||13,5|
|Average minimum, °C||6,2||7,5||8,2||9,2||9,2||8,7||8,2||7,9||7,6||8,2||8,3||7,1||8|
|Absolute minimum, °C||−5||−6,4||−5||−1,1||0,7||−1,1||−2,2||−0,2||−1,1||−4||−6,4|
|Precipitation rate, mm||34||50||75||98||99||56||44||42||60||113||96||67||835|
Colombia is a country with an ongoing civil war. Colombians themselves differ in the reasons for this war., but generally described as follows. First, the very aggressive Spaniards came to the ancient very aggressive Indian tribes and enslaved them. After several centuries of the colonial period, Colombia gained independence and, against the background of delays in economic development, passed all political stages in one very rapid and bloody period., which ended in a confrontation between conservatives and liberals and resulted in the creation of military opposition groups, crime syndicates and leftist guerrillas. They still operate in the country., despite huge international efforts to eliminate them. In this conflict, about 220 thousands of people, of which 170 thousands were civilians. The most recent news on the topic is the September talks between the President of the country of Santos and the rebel leader Jimenez in Cuba., where they seem to have agreed to settle matters peacefully, FARC promised to end hostilities, and amnesty promised to most of the rebels.
Colombia, it seems, unprecedented example of attempted negotiations with terrorists, country, who has tried everything, to end the armed conflict between the government and the military opposition, and this explains many things in the Colombian mentality. Colombians are really very polite people, because their history has shown them, that aggression only gives rise to aggression, and you need to monitor the bazaar very carefully, so as not to get shocked. At the same time, they are able to transform from very polite to terribly aggressive in a second., since their peasants at one time had to take up arms and defend their territory in an illusory way. Add to this the influence of drug cartels on politics and a real opportunity to become a millionaire exclusively on the coca plantations., add to this the employment of a huge number of poor people in the cocaine fields - and we get a Colombian, who still remembers, how they killed in the nineties, wants a good life at the same time, but knows, that a good life can be very short.
Lack of seasons leads to lack of planning ability, because there won't be winter, situational decisions and petty daily crime in the form of widespread theft. There were families of thieves in my school, where did grandma steal, mom stole, and son, who is ten, steals too, because for them it is a profession, like prostitution. Therefore, the most obvious solution for me was to condescend to a huge number of things., which I simply did not come across in my ordinary life in Russia and which I am not used to, as, eg, low level of education and constant lies of everyone around everyone around.
Путешествуя по Боготе, загляните в одно из интереснейших мест страны — Музей золота. Культ этого драгоценного металла существовал здесь еще в доколумбовую эпоху — местные племена считали его священным веществом, able to store energy, поэтому изделия из него использовались не только во время религиозных действий, но и в быту. И по сей день колумбийцы верят, что когда-то на территории их страны находилась легендарная страна Эльдорадо с гигантскими запасами золота.
С приходом испанцев большая часть золотых изделий была вывезена в Европу, however, the locals managed to preserve part of their heritage, спрятав его на дне озер, в пещерах и тайниках. Именно эти находки и составили основу коллекции музея. Today it has over 26,000 exhibits, многие из которых обладают довольно внушительными размерами. The "golden raft" is especially surprising, made, по мнению ученых, задолго до нашей эры: impressive platform, выполненная целиком из благородного металла и украшенная статуями вождя и воинов.